Decoration Plasters Characteristics
Wallpaper − "pall”, whitewash − "smut”, drapery − "accumulate dust” ... Outside walls of bearing apartments are gray, bricks − monochrome, timber houses are built outside the city ... So the routine and monotony of everyday life is enough in the city and at work, and moreover the dwelling is the same color too. The British with their partially dull landscapes and gray houses are tired from. That is why their dwellings fun painted over the plaster, and even the facades of neighboring houses are different in colors and design. But in the hot and sunny Florida papering does not necessary inside, because if the walls are only plastered without it, at least some coolness emanates from them as a result.
Purpose and Types of Plasters
First of all, it is necessary to mention that there is a significant difference between the decoration plasters for exterior and interior applications. The exterior plaster resisted to all natural disasters, and so it is not surprising that its basis must be synthetic, which practically not exposed aggressive environmental influences. The exterior plaster protects facades of the destruction and hiding existing shortcomings. Decoration plaster for interior work can have synthetic and natural bases; it is not for protection, but the design and decoration. Therefore, the outer plaster can be used inside the building, if you want to reinforce the inner wall, but the same one for facades can not be used there in any way, it will begin to "crumble" by the end of the season. The total performances of the plaster depend, of course, on the structure of which is the keystone of the classification.
Glue binders of plaster are divided into:
- mineral, based on lime;
- acrylic, which is based on acrylic copolymers;
- vinyl, with a base of vinyl polymers;
- silicone, with a base of silicone resins;
- plaster, gypsum-based;
- silicate, based on potassium water glass.
In addition to the binder component of decorative plaster in the composition there are fillers (granite, quartz or marble chips) and additives (solvents, thickeners, wood preservatives, antiseptics, dyes, water-repellent agents and biocides). Fillers based on the expected effect of the amount of grains have different chips size.
It is a dry mixture based on lime or cement. Plasters, consisting of natural components (such as warp and filling), are considered to be environmentally friendly. The mineral plaster consists of concrete or lime and filler consisting of rock chips. Dimensions of grain crumbs and relief of cover linked between each other. Just a small proportion in the composition of mineral plaster is occupied polymer additives which serve for better adhesion to the wall. To remove the water absorption almost added a silicone additive. This mineral plaster is resistant to ultraviolet rays and precipitation. It does not create conditions for the appearance of fungus due to the normal pH. It is not expensive and durable.
There are some disadvantages: due to the low elasticity this plaster provokes cracks in the apartment walls, and at all they can be crumbled because of a large friction. If the texture of the plaster is coarse, it looks nice from a distance, but closely − the collection of dust and dirt. Alkalinity of mineral plasters it possible to produce them in only a few colors of light shades. But such wall can be painted, preferably silicate paints having a large amount of colors and shades. Paint plaster even helps to resist natural elements.
Acrylic resins, as a basis for this type of plaster, were due to the development of organic chemistry. The use of resins for plaster a production can be explained by their ability to become hard at the room temperature. An aqueous solution of the resin mixture, a filler and dyes − that is the opaque acrylic plaster, harden when the water is evaporating. Without filler and dyes hardened acrylic resin − a plexiglas. Acrylic plaster is very elastic, it does not need additional painting (it exists because of the dyes in more than five hundred shades). Previously, the plaster used for outdoor works, but new technology has allowed including in it marble or dolomite chips. And now the interior walls are finished effectively under antiquity, bricks, walls of old houses and castles, etc. You may buy it as the finished product in a bucket, so that, if the owner is assured of his skill, then he can also try to create a real masterpiece wall with a stripping knife, a trowel or a sprayer.
A major drawback of this plaster is the absence of steam separation, in other words, the acrylic wall is not breathing in comparison with the wall under the mineral plaster.
The highest strength, resistance to moisture and mechanical stresses, an extraordinary degree of plasticity for plasters − the main characteristics of vinyl plasters. High-strength polyesters, underlying the plaster, allow a maximum precision to apply very fine details of the picture, ornament or invoice. A coating performs images by tampons, rollers for texture patterns. In this case, even the smallest details of leaves are printed out on the jelly plaster, so there is such method of applying a pattern as well. Especially, even the small details of pattern vinyl plaster can withstand a heavy workload, that is, this plaster can serve a very long time. More over, because cares about it is simple: vinyl does not leak water, so the plaster can be washed without worries. And so as the pattern is durable, it will be better to apply it not by the owner himself, but the professional applicator.
It is waterproof, but at the same time it possesses a vapor resistance, that is a wall breathes with the silicone plaster. In terms of service, this plaster has been ranked among the others (over ten years). It has also proved itself better than any other, as the textured plaster of the highest consumer qualities. Considering the high resistance to extreme weather events, such coating of the walls used as outer protection. That is, a silicone plaster is used as the material for the facade’s protection. This plaster − a godsend for restorers: it allows returning the original appearance with the help of texture and color, thus perfectly protecting the historical heritage from the aggressive influence of atmospheric and climatic effects.
Silicon plaster allows you to create relief and art painting on the wall. In the professional’s capable hands a wall, covered with silicone plaster, is a canvas, where just about will appear masterpiece on. On the other hand, this plaster has an enviable soil-repellency property and its cares about is simple: that is enough to walk with a damp cloth on the polluted places.
It is prepared from gypsum; lightweight filler is needed only in order to reduce the consumption of the main component. Before laying, it is not necessary to carry out filling, the plaster itself is also serving as filler. It also allows creating molding. Gypsum plaster can be laid with a thick layer (about 2 inches at a time); however cracks do not appear even during the shrinkage. Gypsum is a natural material, so the plaster is environmentally friendly. The porosity of this plaster has a huge plus: firstly, the wall is breathing, and secondly, if the upstairs neighbor has flooded you, then the stain absorbed during a couple of days, leaving no trace.
Gypsum plaster is easy to handle: it is plastic, does not peel off and applies very easy. Smoothing and alignment are also not cause problems. It can not only align the wall, but fill up the cracks. It copes even with very large holes in the walls because of its rapid setting and curing. Thanks to its universality, builders often prefer gypsum plaster, and it applies equally to the construction, repairing and restoration works.
It is composed of quartz sand, potassium hydroxide and potassium carbonate. They form a liquid glass at a temperature above 14000 C. After cooling it is reduced, then fillers are added into it and as a result the composition turns to the silicate plaster. This plaster is vapor-permeable, in other words, breathing (preventing gas exchange), resistant to fungi and mold. Working with the silicate plaster it takes into account properties: such as viscosity, ability to impregnation and gluing surfaces.
Before applying this coating, it is necessary to do compulsory silicate priming. Silicate plasters have a high liquid release (quickness of drying), therefore, it is necessary to take into account this ability and work with it quickly, otherwise the plaster will hard-set and the gaps will be very difficult to remove. It has ruggedness, does not lose color, does not flake, does not oxidize and has a low static charge, so almost does not attract dust. Silicate plaster is used for interior and facade finishing.
Other Classification Types of Decorative Plasters
There is a classification based on the type and size of filler particles.
Types of Decorative Plasters According the Type of Filler
According to the filler composition there are the following types:
There is another category of wall covering: unique "flock” plaster. It lays in this way: the adhesive layer spread on the prepared wall and the compressor once or flock gun sprayed the "flock” (acrylic particles). They somewhat resemble the potato chips, because such coverage is sometimes also called "chips”. When the wall is dry, excess flock is removed with a brush, and after its drying a varnish is applied to the wall. In principle, "flock” coverage costs less rest others, although it can even imitate suede and velour, and no one other plaster can not boast of such bright colors.
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